The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) is the fifth edition of the manual and defines and classifies mental disorders in order to improve diagnoses, treatment and research. DSM-5 is the product of more than 10 years of work by international experts in all aspects of mental health.
For more information see please visit the DSM-5 page on the American Psychiatric Association website.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
Potential strengths of children with ASD
Autism Spectrum Disorder is the term used to describe a collection of developmental disorders primarily affecting a child’s ability to communicate and form social relationships. It is a complex neuro-developmental condition. The characteristics and symptoms of ASD fall on a continuum and can range from mild to severe and present in a wide variety of combinations. ASD is three to four times more likely in boys than girls.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is the revised diagnostic term under DSM-V and encompasses the four separate disorders of DSM-IV; Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and the catch-all diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.
Under the revised DSM-5 criteria, individuals with ASD must show symptoms from early childhood, even if those symptoms are not recognized until later. This criteria change encourages earlier diagnosis of ASD but also allows people whose symptoms may not be fully recognized until social demands exceed their capacity to receive the diagnosis. It is an important change from DSM-IV criteria, which was geared toward identifying school-aged children with autism-related disorders, but not as useful in diagnosing younger children.
What is the DSM-5?
Potential strengths of children with ASD
Mary Ainsworth was born in on 1 December 1913 in Ohio, United States. She was a Developmental Psychologist and was best known for her research on Attachment Theory and in particular her “Strange Situation” study which she carried out in 1978 with children aged 12 – 18 months, 100 families took part in her study.
In the Strange Situation study the young child and mother play together in a room, the child is free to play with the toys in the room and explore. A stranger then enters the room and tries to interact with the child. Sometime later the mother leaves the room and returns after a short period of time, approximately 3 minutes. The child’s reactions are observed and recorded. Ainsworth categorised the child in one of three ways, securely attached, insecure avoidant or insecure resistant. A fourth category of Insecure disorganised was added later.
Securely attached: prefers their mother to the stranger, seeks physical proximity to their mother, uses their mother as a secure base to explore the room and toys, is upset when their mother leaves the room and when she returns they are positive and happy, avoids the strange when alone and friendly when the mother is present.
Insecurely attached (three types):
Avoidant: little interaction with their mother, not distressed when she leaves the room and doesn’t seek comfort from her when she returns. Plays normally when the stranger is present.
Resistant or Ambivalent: Clings to their mother and does not explore the room very much. Very distressed when the mother leaves the room and resists contact on her return and possibly pushes her away. Avoids the stranger and may seem fearful of the stranger.
Disorganised: Child shows strong avoidance of their mother and/or extreme fearfulness. They are confused and fearful when left alone with the stranger.
Click here to watch a Youtube video about the Strange Situation.
It is very important to use appropriate language and terminology when referring to people with additional needs.
- See the person, not the additional need
- Use people-first language
- Use currently accepted terminology
- Be sensitive to the feelings of others
Inclusive Early Childhood Education enhances the learning experiences for all children.